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First aid and professional care, is basically the same as both sides you need to keep yourself safe, wear gloves, and the skills like recovery position and choking are exactly the same. The main difference between first aid and professional care is the way that CPR is delivered. The European Resuscitation Council and the UK Resuscitation Council have different guidelines with healthcare professionals with a duty to respond compared with the layperson first aid. In the first aid setting, the guidelines make it as easy as possible to remember. So the guidelines for adult, infant and child CPR are basically the same.

With people in professional healthcare who have this duty to respond in an emergency, the guidelines are slightly different as they have more responsibility, training, equipment, and also more people available to them should something go wrong. We'll cover the individual differences in later videos.

First aiders generally have a lot less training than healthcare professionals so it cannot really be expected of them to perform CPR in the same way as a professional. They also do not have the same duty to respond as a professional. By making it nice and easy, we keep the rules the same with 30 compressions and two breaths with all ages of a child, adult and infant. Also, the first aider does not usually have access to bag ventilation masks or other equipment that you would find in a hospital. In first aid environments, they are away from hospital and professional help so it's important that CPR is delivered in an effective way for the person to have the maximum chance of survival.

When CPR is delivered by a healthcare professional away from a hospital setting, they have an element of flexibility in the care they provide. They can decide on the best ratios that will work depending on what situation they're dealing with. When the professional is working with a first aider, it's not that the first aider is wrong and you are right, you're both right, work with them and make sure they know that you're a healthcare professional, and give them as much guidance as possible to ensure the best outcome. If you're working with somebody who has no training at all, then you need to work calmly and give them clear instructions. And if you do need them to do something, make sure you give these instructions so they can understand them.

There remains a strong focus on simplification where possible with pediatric first aid based on the knowledge that many children receive no resuscitation at all because rescuers fear doing harm as often they have not been taught pediatric resuscitation. Bystander resuscitation significantly improves the outcome of children and there is clear evidence that if someone actually does compressions and breaths then the outcome is going to be a lot different. It follows that outcomes could be improved if bystanders who would otherwise do nothing were encouraged to begin resuscitation even if they do not follow an algorithm targeted particularly at children. However, there are distinct differences between a cardiac arrest within adults, which is mainly to do with cardiac problems and that with children which could be linked to a respiratory problem.

The special pediatric algorithms the healthcare professionals take this into account. They use their training in order to ensure the best possible outcome. Even in healthcare professionals, pulse checks for 10 seconds cannot give a reliable source of measurements for the presence or absence of effective circulation. This means that feeling for the pulse cannot be the sole determination for the need for chest compressions. Healthcare professionals need to determine the presence and absence of signs of life such as response to stimuli, normal breathing rather than abnormal gasps, spontaneous movement. There may also be pulse checks but this is not the only way that we're checking to see if this person is breathing. We need to ensure that CPR is delivered looking at the facts that we see. So this decision to start CPR should take no more than 10 seconds and it's all based on this initial assessment you're going to be doing. First aiders, on the other hand, will carry out a breathing check for 10 seconds to determine if CPR is required. When you're in a hospital setting then you would need to follow the healthcare professional guidelines and local policies and procedures laid down by the place you are actually working at.